Understanding Cyberstalking: Your Guide to Detection and Protection

an offender is stalking their victim online

Cyberstalking is a form of online abuse that many people become victims of. It involves unwanted contact from individuals with the intent of harassing, stalking, or threatening their victims. Knowing the most common signs of this cybercrime and how to protect yourself is of utmost importance.

This guide provides immediate insights into detecting and deterring cyberstalkers. Learn how to spot the signs, safeguard your digital life, and take legal action if necessary. Start taking control of your online security today.

Key Takeaways

  • Cyberstalking is a serious form of online harassment which can include unwanted messages, repeated contact, and monitoring of social media activity, leading to emotional and psychological harm.
  • Protecting your online presence from cyberstalkers involves implementing good digital hygiene, such as regularly reviewing privacy settings on social media platforms, managing content visibility, and limiting personal information sharing to reduce the risk of attracting unwanted attention.
  • Responding to any form of hatred should be immediate and involve ceasing communication with the intruder of privacy, collecting evidence of their actions, and reporting their behavior to appropriate authorities for legal action.

Recognizing Online Stalking

Online stalking, also known as cyberstalking, is a form of harassment where someone persistently pursues, threatens, or intimidates another individual using electronic or digital means, such as social media, instant messaging, or email. This behavior ranges from sending threatening messages and creating multiple online profiles for harassment to tracking victims’ digital activities. The ability to hide behind a screen often emboldens trolls, making them more audacious and relentless in their efforts.

Internet trolling is not merely an online nuisance; it is a serious crime. The emotional and psychological harm it inflicts can be as devastating as physical stalking. Recognizing the signs of the former is a key step in safeguarding ourselves and our loved ones on the internet.

Here are the most common signs of online stalking:

Unwanted Messages

An initial sign of online stalking is an influx of unwanted messages. These messages, often sent under a fake online identity, may be inappropriate, threatening, or manipulative. From unsolicited friend requests to persistent emails, the intention is to exert power and control over the victim.

These unwanted messages often lead to emotional distress and a sense of violation. The constant harassment can erode people’s sense of privacy and security, leading to increased anxiety and hypervigilance. A person might even suffer financial problems resulting from identity theft if some of their private information has been leaked.

Persistent Contact

Persistent contact, another telltale sign of internet trolling, involves repeated attempts to communicate by electronic means, even after being blocked or ignored. This could lead to the intruder of privacy creating new social media or email accounts, using different phone numbers, or even hacking into accounts to maintain contact.

Enduring this can have profound psychological effects, including anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and elevated levels of depression. Sharing your experiences with trusted family members or friends and seeking professional help if necessary is strongly recommended in this case.

Monitoring of Social Media Activity

Offenders often obsess over their victims’ social media activities. They may extensively browse their friend lists, utilize third-party applications to monitor what they are doing, or even demand a video call. Trolling, a form of digital harassment where individuals provoke or bully others, can also escalate into online stalking.

Perpetrators may attempt to contact individuals connected to their victim, aiming to gather additional information or intensify their intimidation tactics. Being aware of these tactics and taking necessary precautions is vital to safeguard your online privacy.

a victim of cyberstalking is reading the threats

Protecting Your Online Presence

While recognizing internet harassment is essential, taking proactive measures to protect yourself is equally important.

From your social media accounts to your email, every aspect of your digital life needs to be secured. Here are some steps you can take to safeguard your online presence:

  1. Regularly review your privacy settings.
  2. Manage post visibility to control who can see your content.
  3. Control your friend lists and accept friend requests only from people you know and trust.

Taking these steps can help protect your personal information and ensure a safer online experience.

Strengthen Privacy Settings

Securing your online presence begins with enhancing your privacy settings. Whether it is Facebook, X (formerly Twitter), or Instagram, it is crucial to understand and customize the privacy settings offered by these platforms.

  • Facebook allows you to control who can view your profile and updates.
  • Instagram lets you manage your account’s privacy.
  • X provides options to make your posts private.

These measures can limit your content’s visibility to others outside of your network, reducing the risk of attracting online stalkers.

Limit Personal Information Sharing

Despite the internet’s ability to let us share our lives with the world, excessive sharing can open the door to potential risks. Offenders can exploit your personal information to monitor your activities, potentially leading to compromising situations.

Safeguarding your personal information involves:

  • Establishing strong passwords.
  • Activating multi-factor authentication.
  • Refraining from oversharing on any social media platform.
  • Exercising vigilance when accessing free public Wi-Fi.
  • Being mindful of phishing scams.
  • Maintaining the latest updates on your devices.

Responding to Digital Stalkers

In the unfortunate event of finding yourself targeted by an online harasser, there are definitive steps you must take:

  1. Cease communication with them immediately.
  2. Collect all the evidence.
  3. Report them to the appropriate authorities, such as the police or your local cybercrime unit.

Taking these actions can help address the issue and protect you from further harm.

Cease Communication

Ceasing any form of communication is a crucial step in this process. This means:

  • Not interacting with the intruder of your privacy or acknowledging their attempts.
  • Blocking them across all digital platforms.

To prevent further contact, consider the following steps:

  1. Change your email address, screen name, and all your passwords on social media.
  2. Set all your accounts to private.
  3. Promptly block any new accounts that send you harmful or offensive content.

Collect Evidence

Since cyberstalking is a criminal offense, it requires the essential step of collecting evidence. This includes saving screenshots or copies of messages, documenting dates and times, and preserving any other relevant details. A comprehensive record of the persecutor’s behavior can enhance your safety and support any legal action you might pursue.

When preserving evidence, it is crucial to:

  • Maintain original files.
  • Establish a chain of custody.
  • Document the device’s condition.

In some cases, involving forensic experts can help ensure the integrity of the evidence.

Report to Authorities

A crucial step is to report online stalking to authorities. This involves filing a report with your local law enforcement agency and providing them with any necessary information they require, including evidence such as screenshots and call history or other records.

Upon the receipt of an online stalking report, authorities typically treat it with seriousness, initiate an investigation, and document all relevant information. It is advisable to retain copies of all evidence pertaining to the case.

Legal Aspects of Cyberstalking

Online stalking is more than just a violation of personal boundaries; it is a crime punishable by law. There are specific federal and state laws that address this problem. Understanding them is essential for victims to know their rights and the course of action they can take.

Although federal laws consider cyberstalking a serious offense, they can vary from state to state. Each state has its own laws, with some states explicitly outlining and forbidding it, while others have comprehensive statutes or may not specifically mention cyberstalking.

Federal and State Laws

Under the federal stalking statute as part of the Violence Against Women Act of 2005, cyberstalking is recognized as a federal offense in the United States. Penalties for convicted individuals may include up to 5 years in prison, a fine of up to $250,000 under federal law, and in some cases a life sentence.

The laws concerning digital harassment vary across different states in the U.S. For instance:

  • Delaware prohibits it.
  • Florida imposes additional penalties for it.
  • In California, it is a crime to stalk someone over electronic means. In fact, California was the first state to pass a cyberstalking law in 1999.

Reporting and Prosecution

Reporting the whole act of cyberhate requires:

  • Contacting your local police department or local law enforcement agency.
  • Supplying them with accurate and detailed information.
  • Including specific dates and details of each instance of harassment.
  • Providing information about the methods of communication utilized by the perpetrator.

The evidence collected plays a pivotal role in the prosecution of such cases. Digital evidence, including emails, text messages, comments on social media accounts, and website content can be used to establish that the victim has been subjected to harassment on the internet.

people are discussing their online stalking experience

Resources for Victims of Online Stalking

Despite the overwhelming experience of dealing with online stalking, victims are not alone. Numerous resources are available, including support groups, hotlines, and counseling services, which offer assistance, information, and counseling to help victims manage their situations.

Support groups such as Stalking Resource Center, Feel Safe Again, STOMP Out Bullying™ HelpChat Line, Online Harassment Field Manual, CyberAngels, National Center, and National Sexual Violence Resource Center provide a range of resources, including safety tips, community support, and information for individuals who are experiencing online harassment.

Support Groups

Support groups offer a safe haven for victims to:

  • Share their experiences.
  • Gain advice from others who have encountered similar situations.
  • Receive validation.
  • Gain a sense of empowerment.

Hotlines and Counseling Services

Hotlines and counseling services offer immediate assistance to victims. The VictimConnect hotline and the Cyber Civil Rights Initiative Crisis Helpline are among the top resources, providing support for survivors who may have had their phone numbers publicly exposed.

Counseling services offer validation and guidance to help victims manage the emotional and psychological effects. They can help in creating safety plans and implementing strategies to improve victims’ safety and ensure accountability for the stalking perpetrators.


Online stalking is a serious issue that requires awareness, understanding, and action. By recognizing the signs, taking protective measures, responding appropriately, understanding the legal aspects, and making use of available resources, victims can reclaim their online space and peace of mind. Remember, you are not alone, and there are resources and people ready to help. Stand strong, stay safe, and don’t let anyone invade your privacy.


What are the examples of cyberstalking?

It can include posting rude comments, sending threatening messages, and blackmailing the target. Joining the same groups and forums as the target to follow them online is another form of cyberstalking.

Is cyberstalking considered a crime in the US?

Yes, it is punishable by law and is a serious crime. The prosecution depends on the severity of the wrongdoing. Among the potential conviction penalties are up to 5 or more years in prison, a fine, or a life sentence.

Why is it important to ignore the offender?

By not responding to the offender, you take away their power and control over the situation. Don’t engage with them, respond to their communications, agree to meet, or confront them about what they are doing. These actions can help prevent escalation and protect your safety.

How do I find out who is threatening me if the offender is unknown?

When you are in immediate danger, with the intruder of privacy threatening you, it is always better for the police to take matters into their own hands. However, if you are curious about who it could be, there are a few ways to find out.

If you are facing the problem by email, you can reverse search the email address. In the case when someone is texting you on a messaging app, reverse searching the number will let you know who stands behind the message.

Is there a link between online stalking and sextortion?

These terms are different, however, according to the Social Media Victims Law Center, sextortion currently falls under cyberstalking laws. But since unique cybercrime laws are only developing, those targeting sextortion will likely soon develop as well.

Eugene Kirdzei
Eugene Kirdzei

Chief Technical Officer at Nuwber
With nearly two decades of experience in the IT industry, Eugene possesses comprehensive knowledge across his professional field, including in data management, data protection, and information search. Through his writing, he aims to provide valuable insights and practical advice on how to safely explore the online environment and leverage digital tools to enhance people’s lives.